References: 2. Articles & Papers

Updated 19th December 2011

Since 2010

Bassett, R. 2009. MIT-Trained Swadeshis: MIT and Indian Nationalism, 1880-1947. Osiris 24: 212–230.

Black, J. 2009. The Military Influence of Engineering Education in Britain and India, 1848-1906. Indian Economic and Social History Review 46: 211-239.

Gupta, R., Garg, T. K., Gupta, S. and Goel, A. 2010. Quality Improvement Schemes in Indian Engineering Education. International Journal of Information Technology and Knowledge Management 2(2): 365-367.

Khandekar, Aalok. 2011 Engineering subjectivities: Global Indianness and the making of Indian engineers. Paper read at the Colloque Un ingénieur, des ingénieurs, Paris, Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, 6-7 October.

Kumar, A. 2010. Thomason College of Engineering, Roorkee, 1847-1947. In Das Gupta, U. and Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (eds.), Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, 1784-1947, Vol. 15, 451-471. Delhi: Pearson.

Lardinois, R. 2011 L’espace social des écoles d’ingénieurs en Inde. Entre l’Etat et le marché. Paper read at the Colloque Un ingénieur, des ingénieurs, Paris, Ecole des hautes études en sciences sociales, 6-7 October.

Lourdusamy, J. B. 2010. College of Engineering, Guindy, 1794–1947. In Das Gupta, U. and Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (eds.), Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, 1784-1947, Vol. 15, 429-450. Delhi: Pearson.

Malish, C. M. and Ilavarasam, P. V. 2010. Exploring the Professional Status of Software Work in India, IEEE Technology and society Magazine in India, Winter.

Ramnath, A. 2010.  A New Institution for Engineers: Change and Continuity in the Profession in India 1900-1935. Communication presented at the 4th European South Asia Ph.D. Workshop 27th/28th August, Heidelberg.

Varma, R. and Kapur, D. 2010. Access, Satisfaction, and Future: Undergraduate Education at the Indian Institutes of Technology. Higher Education 59: 703-717.


Anderson, R.S. 2001. Empire’s Setting Sun? Patrick Blackett and Military and Scientific Development of India. Economic and Political Weekly 36 (39): 3703-3705+3707-3720.

Barik, R. K. 2004. Social Background of Civil Service: Some Depressing Trends. Economic and Political Weekly 39 (7): 625-628.

Bassett, R. 2009. Aligning India in the Cold War Era: Indian Technical Elites, the Indian Institute of Technology at Kanpur, and Computing in India and the United States. Technology and Culture 50: 783-810.

Coehlo, K. 2005. Unstating ‘the public’: an Ethnography of Reform in an Urban Public Sector Utility in South India. In David, M. & David, L. (eds.), Anthropology Upstream: The Ethnography of Aid Donors and Neoliberal Reform, 171-195. London: Pluto Press.

Coelho, K. 2006. Tapping In: Leaky Sovereignties and Engineered (Dis)Order in an Urban Water System. In Monica, N. et al (eds.), SARAI READER 06: Turbulence, 497-509. Delhi: Centre for the Study of Developing Societies.

Deshpande, J. V. 2000. AICTE as Politicians’ Handmaiden. Economic and Political Weekly 35 (49): 4307-4308.

Deshpande, J. V. 2000. Education: Teaching Is the Last Priority. Economic and Political Weekly 35 (37): 3291-3292.

Deshpande, J. V. 2000. Education as Business. Economic and Political Weekly 35 (28/29): 2506-2508.

Gupta R. and Singh, J.V. 2001. McKinsey’s Managing Director Rajat Gupta on Leading a Knowledge-Based Global Consulting Organization. The Academy of Management Executive (1993-2005) 15 (2) Positioning Organizations and People for Competitive Advantage: 34-44.

Ilavrasam, P. V. 2008. Software Work in India: A Labour Process View. In Upadhya, C. and Vasavi, A. R. (eds.), In an Outpost of the Global Economy: Work and Workers in India’s Information Technology Industry, 162-189. New Delhi: Routledge Talylor & Francis Group.

Jodhka, S. S. 2001. Minority Status for Sikhs in Punjab: What Does It Mean? Economic and Political Weekly 36 (18): 1498-1499.

Khadria, B. and Leclerc, E. 2006. Exode des emplois contre exode des cerveaux, les deux faces d’une même pièce? Autrepart, Revue des sciences sociales au sud 37: 47-51. Special issue on La Migration des Emplois Vers le Sud. France: IRD Editions.

Leslie, S. and R. Kargon (2006). Exporting MIT: Science, technology, and nation building in India and Iran. Orisis 21: 110-130.

Natarajan, R. 2002. Emerging Trends in Engineering Education -Indian Perspectives. Proceedings of 16th Australian International Education Conference 30 September4 October. Hobart.

Pandian, M. S. S. 2000. Myth of Creamy Layer. Economic and Political Weekly 35 (17): 1417.

Parthasarathy, B. 2006. The Political Economy of the Indian Software Industry. In Govindan Parayil (ed.). Political Economy in Information Capitalism in India. Digital Divide, Development and Equity. New York: Palmgrave macmillan. 153-173.

Parthasarathy, B. 2004. Globalizing Information Technology: The Domestic Policy Context for India’s Software Production and Exports. Iterations. An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History (online) 3: 1-38.

Prasad, S. 2001. Gandhi’s Views on Science. Economic and Political Weekly 36 (48): 4434.

Prasad, S. 2001. Towards an Understanding of Gandhi’s Views on Science. Economic and Political Weekly 36 (39): 3721-3732.

Radhakrishnan, S. 2006. “Global Indians » and the Knowledge Economy: Gender and the Making of a Middle-Class Nation. Sociology. Berkeley, CA, University of California, Berkeley. Doctor of Philosophy: 237.

Radhakrishnan, S. 2008. Examining the ‘Global’ Indian middle class: Gender and culture in the Silicon Valley/Bangalore circuit. Journal of Intercultural Studies 29(1): 7- 20.

Raina, D. 2001. Visvesvaraya as Engineer-Sociologist and the Evolution of his Techno-Economic Vision. National Institute of Advanced Studies: Bangalore.

Rajendran, V. 2000. Reservation Policy. Economic and Political Weekly 35 (26): 2194+2344.

Saxenian, A. (2005). From Brain Drain to Brain Circulation: Transnational communities and regional upgrading in India and China. Studies in Comparative International Development 40(2): 35-61.

Sharma, S. 2005. Commercialisation of Higher Education in India. Social Scientist 33 (9/10): 65-74.

Tilak, J. B. G. 2005. Are We Marching towards Laissez-faireism in Higher Education Development? Journal of International Cooperation in Education 8 (1): 153-165.

Tilak, J. B. G. 2008. Transition from Higher Education as a Public Good to Higher Education as a Private Good: The Saga of Indian Experience. Journal of Asian Public Policy 1 (2): 220‐234.

Upadhya, C. 2006. The Global Indian Software Labour Force: IT Professionals in Europe. Indo-Dutch Programme for Alternatives in Development. Working Paper Series 1.

Varma, R. and Varma D. R. 2009. The Making of Indian Entrepreneurs in the US. Economic and Political Weekly, 44 (3): 64-69.

Varma, R. and Kapur, D. 2009. Access, satisfaction, and future: undergraduate education at the Indian Institutes of Technology. Higher Education 59, 6: 703-717.

Varma, R. 2008. Challenges to Diversity: A Case Study of Indian Scientists and Engineers. In Mannar I. Srinivasan (ed.) Communicating in a World of Diversity. Hyderabad, India: ICFAI University Press: 174-187 (Reprinted with permission from the American Society for Engineering Education).

Varma R., Prasad, A. and Deepak Kapur, D. 2006. Confronting ‘Socialization’ Barrier: Cross-Ethnic Differences in Undergraduate Women’s Preference for IT Education. In Joanne McGrath Cohoon and William Aspray (eds.) Women and Information Technology: Research on Underrepresentation. Cambridge: MIT Press. 301-323.

Varma, R. 2007. Changing Borders and Realities: Emigration of Indian Scientists and Engineers to the United States. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology, 6: 539-556.

Varma, R. and and Rogers, E. M. 2004. Indian Cyber Workers in US. Economic and Political Weekly, 39 (52): 5645-5652.

Varma, R. 2000. Technology and Ethics for Engineering Students. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 20 (3): 217-224.

Varshney, L. R. 2006. Private Engineering Education in India: Market Failures and Regulatory Solutions. Science, Technology, and Public Policy: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. November 29.

Visvanathan, S. 2001. Democracy, Governance and Science: Strange Case of the Missing Discipline. Economic and Political Weekly, 36 (39): 3684-3688.

Viswanadhan, K. G. 2008. Status of Undergraduate Engineering Education in India: An Analysis of Accredited Engineering Programmes. International Education Studies 1 (3): 99-107.


Ambirajan, S. 1995. Science and Technology Education in South India. In Macleod R. et Kumar D. (eds.), Technology and the Raj: Western Technology and Technical Transfers to India 1700-1947, 112-133. Delhi: Sage.

Ambirajan, S. 1996. The Professionalization of Economics in India. History of Political Economy 28: 80-96.

Bolding, A., Mollinga, P. P. and Straaten, K. V. 1995. Modules for Modernisation: Colonial Irrigation in India and the Technological Dimension of Agrarian Change. Journal of Development Studies 31 (6): 805-844.

Chitnis, S. 1993. Gearing a Colonial System of Education to Take Independent India towards Development. Higher Education 26 (1) Perspectives on Higher Education in India: 21-41.

Cuddy, B. P. and Mansell, T. 1994. Engineers for India: The Royal Indian Engineering College at Cooper’s Hill. History of Education Journal 23 (1): 107-123.

Deshpande, J. V. 1998. Seven Cannot Equal Eight. Economic and Political Weekly 33 (42/43): 2702.

Guha, S. 1998. From Dias to Doctors: The Medicalisation of Childbirth in Colonial India. In Lingam, L. (ed.) Understanding Women’s Health Issues: A Reader, 228-243. New Delhi: Kali.

Lakha, S. 1999. The state, globalization, and the Indian middle class. in Culture and privilege in capitalist Asia. M. J. Pinches (ed). New York: Routledge: 251-74.

Lakha, S. 1994. The New International Division of Labour and the Indian Computer Software Industry. Modern Asian Studies 28 (2): 381-408.

Mathew, E. T. 1990. Financing College Education in the Private Sector in Kerala. Economic and Political Weekly 25 (17): 943+945-954.

Muraleedharan, V. R. 1992. Professionalizing Medical Practice in Colonial South India. Economic and Political Weekly 27 (4): 27-37.

Parsons, L. B. 1996. Engineering in Context: Engineering in Developing Countries. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 122(4): 170-176.

Pinto, A. 1994. Politics of Capitation Colleges. Economic and Political Weekly 29 (1/2): 31-33.

Raina, D. and Habib I. S. 1991. Technical Institutes in Colonial India Kala Bhavan, Baroda (1890-1990). Economic and Political Weekly 26 (46): 2619-2621+2623-2624.

Raina, D. and Habib, I. 1992. Technical Content and Social Context: Locating Technical Institutes. The First Two Decades in the History of the Kala Bhawan, Baroda (1890-1910). In Petitjean et al. (eds.), Science and Empire, 121-136. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publications.

Shatrugna, M. 1992. Decks Cleared for Capitation Fee Colleges. Economic and Political Weekly 27 (22): 1118-1119.

Singh, A. 1995. The IITs Yesterday and Tomorrow. Economic and Political Weekly 30 (38): 2389-2394.

Sinha, J. N. 1995. Technology for National Reconstruction: The National Planning Committee, 1938-49. In Macleod, R. And  Kumar D. (eds), Technology and the Raj: Western Technology and Technical Transfers to India 1700-1947, 250-264. Delhi: Sage.

Tilak, J. B. G. 1994. The Pests Are Here to Stay: Capitation Fee in Disguise. Economic and Political Weekly 29 (7): 348-350.

Wagner, C. H. 1999. Coming to America: The Journey of an Immigrant Scholar. The College Mathematics Journal 30 (1): 2-17.


Buchanan, R. A. 1985. The Rise of Scientific Engineering in Britain. The British Journal for the History of Science 18 (2): 218-233.

Buchanan, R. A. 1986. The Diaspora of British Engineering. Technology and Culture 27 (3): 501-524.

Deshpande, J. V. 1983. Engineering Education: Wholesale Adulteration. Economic and Political Weekly 18 (35): 1512-1514.

Mehta, M. 1985. Institution Building in Princely India: A Case Study of the Polytechnic Institute, Baroda, 1890-1896. In Proceedings of the 45th session of the Indian History Congress, 669-677. Aligarh: Gopal Printers.

Kumar, K. 1985. Reproduction or Change? Education and Elites in India. Economic and Political Weekly 20 (30): 1280-1284.

Kirpal, V. Swamidasan, N., Gupta, A. and Gupta, R. K. 1985. Scheduled Castes and Tribe Students in Higher Education: A study of an IIT. Economic and Political Weekly 20 (29): 1238-1248.

Kothari, V. N. 1986. Private Unaided Engineering and Medical Colleges: Consequences of Misguided Policy. Economic and Political Weekly 21 (14): 593-596.

Shatrugna, M. 1988. Privatising Higher Education. Economic and Political Weekly 23 (50): 2624-2626.

Sinha, Jai B. P. 1982. Power in Indian Organizations. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 17, 3. 339-352.


Altbach, P. G. 1977. In Search of Saraswati: the Ambivalence of the Indian Academics. Higher Education 6: 255-275.

Bodas, G. N. 1973. On Technical Education with Special Reference to Gwalior Administrative Division. Social Scientist 1 (11): 63-71.

Devon, R. F. 1971. For Whom the Engineer Toils. Economic and Political Weekly 6 (48): 2395-2399+2401+2403-2404.

Eisemon, T.O. 1974. Institutional Correlates of Faculty Outlook and Professional Behaviours: a Study of Indian engineering faculty. Higher Education 3 (4): 419-437.

King, A. D. 1970. Elite Education and the Indian Economy: IIT Entrance 1965-70. Economic and Political Weekly 5 (35): 1463-1472.

King, A. D. 1970. The IIT Graduates 1970: Aspirations, Expectations, and Ambitions. Economic and Political Weekly 5 (36): 1497-1510.

Lykos, P. G. 1974. The Computer Illiteracy Problem: A Partial Solution. The American Mathematical Monthly 81 (4): 393-398.

Rae, J. B. 1975. Engineers Are People. Technology and Culture 16 (3): 404-418.

Rao, G. V. S.. 1972. Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Indian Engineers: A Test of the Two-Factor Theory. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations 8, 4. 605-619.

Shukla. 1970. Problems of Technical Education. Economic and Political Weekly 15 (18): 728-729.

Subrahmanyam, M. G. 1970. Problems of Technical Education. Economic and Political Weekly 5 (18): 728-729.


Hone, A. 1968. Economics of Improving Technical Education. Economic and Political Weekly 3 (1/2): 119-126.

Kothari, V.N. 1968. Why cut engineering education. Economic and Political Weekly 3 (23): 867-868.

Rajagopalan, C. and Singh, J. 1968. The Indian Institutes of Technology: Do they Contribute to Social Mobility? Economic and Political Weekly 3 (14): 565-570.

Schmitthener, S. 1968. Sketch of the development of legal profession in India. Law and Society Review 3 (2/3): 337-382.

Shils, E. 1969. The Academic Profession in India, Minerva 7 (3): 345-372.

Anonym. 1967. Development of Kanpur, a U S Concern. Economic and Political Weekly 2 (7): 393.

References: 1. Books

Updated 19th December 2011

Since 2010

Atal, Y. (ed.) 2009. Sociology and Social Anthropology in India. New Delhi: Indian Council of Social Science Research.

Bairy, R. S. 2010. Being Brahmin, Being Modern. Exploring the Lives of Caste Today. New Delhi: Routledge.

Banerjee, R. and Muley, V. P. 2010. Engineering Education in India. Mumbai: Macmillan.

Baviskar, A. and Ray, R. 2010. Elite and Everyman: The Cultural Politics of the Indian Middle Classes. Delhi: Routledge.

Biswas, G., Chopra, K. L., Jha, C.S. and D.V. Singh. 2010. Profile of Engineering Education in India: Status, Concerns and Recommendations. New Delhi: Indian National Academy of Engineering, Narosa Publishing House.

Deb, S. 2011. The Beautiful and the Damned Life in the New India. New Delhi: Penguins Books India.

Fernandes, L. 2005. India’s new middle class: Democratic politics in an era of economic liberalization. Minneapolis; London: University of Minnesota Press.

Ganguly-Scrase, R. and Scrase T. J. 2009. Globalisation and the Middle Classes in India. The Social and cultural impact of neoliberal reforms. London: Routledge.

Jaffrelot, J., van der Veer, P. (eds). 2008. Patterns of Middle Class Consumption in India and China. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Joshi, S. (2001). Fractured modernity: Making of a middle class in colonial North India. London; New York, Oxford University Press.

Kapur, D. 2010. Diaspora, Development, and Democracy: The Domestic Impact of International Migration from India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kumar, D., Damodaran, V. & D’Souza, R. (eds). 2010. The British Empire and the Natural World: Environmental Encounters in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Naik, B. M. and Kandilkar, W. S. 2010. Higher & Technical Education: Book of Knowledge. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.

Nair, S. (Forthcoming 2013) Moving with the Times: Gender, Status and Migration of Malayali Nurses. New Delhi: Routledge.

Ramnath, R. 2011. S. Chandrasekhar: Man of Science. Foreword by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam. New Delhi: Harper Collins.

Saavala, M. 2010. Middle Classes Moralities. Everyday struggle over belonging and prestige in India. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan.

Saini, A. 2011. Geek Nation. How Indian Science is taking over the World. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Subramanian, D. 2010. Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labor in a Global Economy. New Delhi: Social Science Press.

Shyamsundar, R. K. and Pai, M. A. (eds). 2011. Homi Bhabha and the Computer Revolution. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Vir, D, Den, Sen, D, Patnaik, P. and Hazra A. K. (eds). 2011. Sixty Years in the Service of the Nation: An Illustrated History of IIT Kharagpur. Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan.


Aneesh, A. 2006. Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization. New Delhi: Pearson Longman.

Deb, S. 2004. The IITians: The Story of a Remarkable Indian Institution and how its Alumni are Reshaping the World. New Delhi: Viking Penguin.

Gulhati, S. K. 2007. The IITs: Slumping or Soaring? New Delhi: Macmillan.

Gasskov, V. et al. 2003. Industrial Training Institutes of India: The Efficiency Study Report. ILO Subregional Office for South Asia. New Delhi: ILO.

Khadria, B. 2004. Migration of Highly Skilled Indians: Case Studies of IT and Health Professionals. STI Working Papers 6, April. Paris: OECD.

Mahedevan, Madhavi S. (ed). 2002. The Madras Sappers: An Enduring Legacy. Bangalore: Madras Engineer Group and Centre.

Manchanda, R. 2008. Monastery, Sanctuary, Laboratory: 50 Years of IIT-Bombay. Mumbai: Macmillan.

Mukherjee, S. 2009. Nationalism, Education and Migrant Identities: The England-Returned. London: Routledge.

Parthasarathi, A. 2007. Technology at the Core. Science and Technology with Indira Gandhi. New Delhi: Pearson Longman.

Salwi, D. P.2003. M. Visvesvaraya. Engineer & Nation Builder. New Delhi: Rupa & Co.

Shanker, D. 2008. Social Mobility among Professionals in Bangalore City. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.

Sharma, D. C. 2009. The Long Revolution: the Birth and Growth of India’s IT Industry. New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India.

Subbarao, E. C. 2008. An Eye for Excellence: Fifty years of IIT Kanpur. New Delhi: Harper Collins Publishers India.

Upadhya, C. and Vasavi, A. R. 2008. In an Outpost of the Global Economy: Work and Workers in India’s Information Technology Industry. New Delhi: Routledge Talylor & Francis Group.

Varma, R. 2006. Harbinger of Global Change: India’s Techno-Immigrants to the United States. Maryland: Lexington Books.

Xiang, B. 2007. Global ‘Body Shopping: An Indian Labor System in the Information Technology Industry. Princeton, NJ & Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Zachariach, B. 2005. Developing India: An Intellectual and Social History c. 1930-1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Gandhi, J. S. 1994. Professions, Law and Social Change, New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications.

Jakatdar, V. 1990. Destiny Makers of Indian Industry: A Study of Scientists and Engineers. London: Sangam Books.

Johnson, W. 1990. Benjamin Robins, 1707-1751: Opting Not to be a Commissary for Acadia but a Fortifications Engineer in East India. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Khadria, B. 1999. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India’s Brain Drain. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Kirpal, V. and Gupta, M. 1999. Equality through Reservations. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Kumar, D. 1991. Science and Empire: Essays in Indian Context, 1700-1947. Delhi: Anamika Prakashan.

Macleod, R. and Kumar, D. (eds). 1995. Technology and the Raj: Western Technology and Technical Transfers to India 1700-1947. Delhi: Sage.

Mukhopadhyay, C. and Seymour, S. (eds). 1994. Women, Education and Family Structure in India. Boulder: Westview Press.

Parikh, P. P. and Sukhatme, S. P. 1992. Women Engineers in India. A Study of the Participation of Women in Engineering Profession. Mumbai: Indian Institute of Technology.

Paul, J. J. 1991. The Legal Profession in Colonial South India. Bombay: Oxford University Press.

Sukhatme, S. P. (1994). The real brain drain. Hyderabad, Orient Longman Limited.

Vaux, P. 1994. Bengal Engineer. Edinburgh: Pentland Press.


Bawa, J. S., Lt. Gen. 1980. History of the Corps of Engineers. Compiled under the direction and authority of the Engineer-in-Chief, Army Headquarters. New Delhi: Palit & Palit Publishers.

Gandhi, J. S. 1982. Lawyers and Touts: A Study in the Sociology of Legal Professions. New Delhi: Hindustan Publication.

Headrick, D. R. 1981. Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Headrick, D. R. 1988. The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850-1940. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Lal, S. K., Khanna, K., Chandani, A. and Nahar, U. R. (eds.) 1988. Readings in the Sociology of the Professions. Delhi: Gian Publishing House.

Madan, T. N. (eds.) 1980. Doctors and society: Three Asian case studies- India, Malaysia, Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Vikas.

Mital, K. 1986. The History of Thomason College of India, Roorkee. University of Roorkee Press.

Omprakash, S. 1986. Caste and politics in Indian Education. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications.

Sharma, K. L. 1984. Sociology of Law and Legal Profession.A Study or Relations between Lawyers and their Clients. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.


Das Gupta, U. and Chattopadhyaya, D.P. (eds.). 2010. Science and Modern India: An Institutional History, 1784-1947, Vol. 15, 451-471. Delhi: Pearson.

Dubey, M. S. 1975. Social Mobility among the Professions. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.

Niland, J. R. 1970. The Asian engineering Brain-Drain: A Study of International Relocation into the US from India, China, Korea, Thailand and Japan. Massachusetts: Lexington.


Cameron, J. G. 1960. The Royal Indian Engineering College Cooper’s Hill, 1870-1906, Copper Hill’s Society.

Mishra, B. B. 1961. The Indian Middle Classes: Their Growth in Modern Times. London and New York: Oxford University Press.


Bengal Engineering College (1856)

Established in 1856 as the Bishop’s College, Bengal Engineering College (since 1921) and now Bengal Engineering and Science University (since 2004) is one of the foremost institutions providing technical education in India. It has been a pioneering institution which contributed significantly to the development of modern India. We present here some vignettes of this long journey from the Centenary Souvenir of the BE College published in 1956. (Campus sketches by Kaushik Basu, a student of Electrical Engineering)


1. Logo

2. Photo1

3. Photo2



Useful Websites

Online Resources

1. Government Websites

Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD). Department of Higher Education.

MHRD. Department of Education. Compilation on 50 years of Indian Education: 1947-1997.

MHRD. Department of Education. Compilation on 50 years of Indian Education: Technical Education.

All India Council for Technical Education.

Ministry of Science and Technology. Department of Science and Technology.

Union Public Service Commission.

2. Apex Professional Organizations

The Institution of Engineers (India).

Engineering Council of India.

Indian National Academy of Engineering.

Pan IIT-Alumni Association.

Pan IIT-IIT Alumni Association.

NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Services Companies).

3. Engineering Associations

Aeronautical Society of India.

Association of Consulting Civil Engineers.

Broadcast Engineering Society.

Computer Society of India.

Construction Industry Development Council.

Consultancy Development Centre.

Consulting Engineers Association of India.

Indian Association of Structural Engineers.

Indian Buildings Congress.

Indian Concrete Institute.

Indian Geotechnical Society.

Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Indian Institute of Metals.

Indian Institution of Bridge Engineers.

Indian Institution of Industrial Engineering.

Indian Institution of Plant Engineering.

Indian National Group of the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering.

Indian Railways Service of Mechanical Engineers.

Indian Railways Technical Supervisors Association.

Indian Society for Nondestructive Testing.

Indian Society for Trenchless Technology.

Institute of Electricals and Electronics Engineers.

Institute of Urban Transport.

Institution of Civil Engineers.

Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers.

Institution of Mechanical Engineering.

Institution of Surveyors.

International Council of Consultants.

4. Higher Technical Education in India (Public sector)

The technical education system in India can be broadly classified into three categories: Central Government funded institutions, State Government/State-funded Institutions, and Self-financed institutions. The Centrally funded institution of technical and science education are as under:


IITs 15
IIMs 13
IISc., Bangalore 1
NITs 30

Source: (Accessed 6th December 2011)

IIT: Indian Institutes of Technology

IIM: Indian Institutes of Management

IISc: Indian Institutes of Science, Bangalore.

IISER: Indian Institute of Science Education and Research

NIT: National Institutes of Technology

IIIT: Indian Institutes of Information Technology

NITTTR: National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research

SPA: School of Planning & Architecture, New Delhi.

ISMU: Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad, Jharkhand.

NERIST: North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology, Nirjuli, Arunachal Pradesh.

SLIET: Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sangrur, Punjab.

NITIE: National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Mumbai.

NIFFT: National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology, Ranchi, Jharkhand.

5. List of  Indian & National Institutes of Technology (Public)

Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur.

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.

Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.

Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati.

Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.

Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad.

Indian Institute of Technology, Rajasthan.

Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar.

Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi.

Indian Institute of Technology, Indore.

Indian Institute of Technology, Patna.

Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhi Nagar.

Indian Institute of Technology, Bhuvaneshwar.

National Institute of Technology, Agartala.

Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad.

National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh.

Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal.

National Institute of Technology, Calicut.

National Institute of Technology, Delhi.

National Institute of Technology, Durgapur.

National Institute of Technology, Goa.

National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur.

Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar.

National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur.

National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra.

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur.

National Institute of Technology, Meghalaya.

National Institute of Technology, Manipur.

National Institute of Technology, Mizoram.

National Institute of Technology, Nagaland.

National Institute of Technology, Patna.

National Institute of Technology, Puducherry.

National Institute of Technology, Raipur.

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela.

National Institute of Technology, Sikkim.

National Institute of Technology, Silchar.

National Institute of Technology, Srinagar.

Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat.

National Institute of Technology, Surathkal.

National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli.

National Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand.

National Institute of Technology, Warangal.

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee – Indian Institute of Information Technology, Gwalior.

Pandit Dwarka Prasad Mishra Indian Institute of Information, Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur.

Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Kanchipuram.

Book: Hindu Nationalism

Michael Schied, Nationalismus und Fundamantalismusm in Indien. Der Ayodhya-Konflikt, Saarbrücken, VDM Verlag Dr Muller, 2008

« The book analyses the events leading up to the storming of the Babri Mosque at Ayodhya by activists of the Hindu fundamentalist movement on 30th October 1990. In this context, all parties and organisations involved in the conflict, their histories, strategies and tactics are examined: Vishva Hindu Parishad, Bharatiya Jana Sangh/Bharatiya Janata Party, Rashtriya Svayamsevak Sangh, Muslim organisations, Indian National Congress, Janata Dal. The thesis demonstrates the changes within Hinduism revealed by the Ayodhya campaign and, in doing so, describes its religious symbolism. Legal aspects of the Babri Mosque issue in independent India are also analysed and possible scenarios of conflict resolution explored. The thesis illustrates the importance of the issue in the context of the country’s overall development and its central political trends since 1947. »

Review: Ashgar Ali Engineer’s Autobiography

An Engineer and a Reformist: The Autobiography of Asghar Ali Engineer

Review by Zarin Ahmad

A Living Faith: My Quest for Peace Harmony and Social Change, New Delhi, Orient BlackSwan, 2011

Most people in India are familiar with the name Asghar Ali Engineer – a reformist, writer and activist based in Mumbai. He is well known in South Asia and beyond for his work on or rather against communal violence in India and his revolutionary activism against the Dawoodi Bohra (a Shia sect) clergy. Engineer has authored more than fifty books and written innumerable articles in books, journals and newspapers and been at the forefront of civil society movements.

However not many of us are aware of the fact that Asghar Ali is an engineer by training. He graduated in civil engineering from Vikram University, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh and has worked with the Bombay Municipal Corporation for nearly twenty years. Asghar Ali remained active and interested in various social issues while working as an engineer. In 1981 he took leave for two years to work on an ICSSR project on Indian Muslims in the post-independence period and finally took voluntary retirement in 1983.

During his engagement with writing and activism, Asghar Ali Sheikh Kurban or Asghar Ali SK as he was then called, changed his name to Asghar Ali Engineer. He was writing an article for the Times of India on the evolution of Shariah law in 1965. He felt that the name Asghar Ali SK, did not sound good. His friend Zoeb Ansari suggested that he could take his professional name. It is common in India especially among Parsis (Zoroastrians) and Bohra Muslims to have a family name based on one’s occupation (Bandukwala or one who deals in guns, Mithaiwala or one who deals in sweets, Vakil or lawyer, Contractor,) or on the village name (Sidpurwala, Partapurwala). Going by this trend, Asghar Ali SK chose his professional name and not his village name which would have been Mandsaurwala. He penned his article in the Times of India under the name Asghar Ali Engineer –the name stayed.

The present book surveys his journey as the son of a teacher from a small town – Mandsaur, Madhya Pradesh in the 1940s to a reformer and activist in Bombay (Mumbai) from the 1970s to the present. In doing so, Engineer addresses key issues in understanding Indian politics and society specifically the contours of communal politics in India and Maharashtra; Islamic Shariat and women’s rights and the politics and workings of the Bohra Muslim clergy. The latter is extremely valuable for those working on the Sociology of Muslims in India for two reasons. One, there is not enough literature on Muslim communities particularly so for Shia Muslims. Two, being a part of the Bohra community, Engineer has a deeper insight and access to the subject. The book also provides interesting vignettes on the experience of a civil engineer in Bombay from 1963 to 1981. This aspect however could have been discussed in a little more detail.

Project: Context in Engineering

Rethinking Context in Engineering

Working title for the project group: Issues in Engineering Studies

Publisher: Springer

To be published in the Springer series: Philosophy of Engineering & Technology

Responsible editor and project coordinator: Steen Hyldgaard Christensen

Co-editors: Bernard Delahousse, Gary Downey, Andrew Jamison, Martin Meganck, Carl Mitcham

Approach: A combination of the approach used in: Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard, Delahousse, Bernard, Meganck, Martin (eds) (2009). Engineering in Context. Academica, Aarhus and the approach used in Gary Downey and Kasey Beddoe (eds.) (2010). What is Global Engineering For: The Making of International Educators. Morgan & Claypool Publishers.

Length of the volume: 600 pages

Short description of the Springer project: The aim of this project is to gain a better understanding of the contexts in which engineering activities are situated within the larger realm of human activities. In dealing with context it immediately becomes clear that context is an inherently dialectical concept, since contextualizing in itself is dependent on definitions of what is perceived to be the relevant boundaries regarding both the education and the practice of engineering. Contextualizing thus unfolds its inherent dialectics in the terrain between what “is” and “ought”. In this way the quest for a re-contextualizing of engineering education and practice put forward in this volume inevitably is a value-laden enterprise and therefore not without a certain degree of controversy. It is concerned with both what engineering “is” and what it “ought” to be. Ultimately a greater awareness and understanding of context should result in better preparation of engineers to render those contexts visible in their work, and consequently enable engineers to contribute to more socially robust and responsible endeavors. Engineering practices have to often been characterized by absence of self-criticism, and liberal arts practices by reverence for isolated critical virtuosity. To burst these boundaries in a collaborative effort is a main purpose of the project. Using ”context” and two simply stated but complex questions “What is engineering for? and, What are engineers for?”  as bridges the project sets out to juxtapose important cases of critical participation within engineering with sophisticated scholarly reflection on both opportunities and discontents.

Provisional structure of the volume containing 30 chapters (600 pages).


General Introduction

Section 1 (Introduction + 6 chapters): Contextualizing Engineering

Section 2 (Introduction + 6 chapters): Institutional Contexts of Engineering Education

Section 3 (Introduction + 6 chapters): Context in Engineering Curricula

Section 4 (Introduction + 6 chapters): Context in Engineering Design

Section 5 (Introduction + 6 chapters): Ethics and Values in Engineering

Author Biographies


Short description of the main content of the five sections

Section 1: Contextualizing Engineering

The issue of context in engineering is no doubt one of the most central and controversial topics in the studies of engineering and technology. On the one hand, context is an old issue if one views engineering as an activity adapting technical objects and projects to particular material and social conditions. On the other hand, it is a current issue if one considers the context to be at the heart of contemporary philosophical, historical and social reflections upon technology. Whatever the viewpoint, any attempt to characterize engineering as a core activity of the ‘technology-in-society’ must, as far as possible, choose a position on what can be termed ‘the question of context’. Section 1 is thus meant to serve as a philosophical, historical, and social reflection of the various meanings of “Context” in engineering and technology.

Section 2: Institutional Contexts of Engineering Education

Engineering education takes place at different levels, in different types of institutions embedded in different national systems of higher education. Systems of higher education are not stable entities but are exposed to structural change over time due to institutional and structural dynamics. Examples of typical structural dynamics are academic drift in engineering colleges and vocational drift in universities. Such dynamics work to transform educational systems and to blur the boundaries between the different types of institutions. The aim of this section is to investigate the historical record of a number of ideal typical institutions of engineering education in the United States, Europa, and China and the historical transformation they have gone through. As ideal typical cases The United Kingdom, France, Germany and China represent four historical reference models of higher education – the Oxbridge, the Napoleonic, the Humboldtian, and the Marxist. These reference models constitute the historical initial conditions for the shaping of engineering education and the different status and roles attributed to engineers in the four countries. In section 2 these issues will be scrutinized.

Section 3: Context in Engineering Curricula

The importance of incorporating contextual issues and developing socio-technical competencies in engineering education has been widely acknowledged in the engineering education community in Australia, Europe and the United States. High quality engineering design requires understanding of how the engineered artifact interacts with individuals, society, and  the environment, both natural and manmade. In the US, the ABET EC 2000 criteria ( for accrediting engineering programs incorporate context in two out of eleven program outcomes (a-k) under criterion 3. The two context-related outcomes to be achieved by first-cycle engineering students are (c) “an ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability”, and (h) “the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, and societal context”. In the European EUR-ACE accreditation framework (Document A1-en Final 17 November, 2005), context is incorporated as one outcome out of five under the heading “Transferable Skills”.First-cycle engineering students are expected to “demonstrate awareness of the health, safety and legal issues and responsibilities of engineering practice, the impact of engineering solutions in a societal and environmental context, and commit to professional ethics, responsibilities and norms of engineering practice”. The aim of this section is to investigate whether and if so to what extent, confronted with which obstacles and how socio-technical integration has been tackled and implemented in a number of exemplary engineering education institutions and their curricula.

Section 4: Context in Engineering Design

Engineering design may be seen as the core of engineering. In this section, we will focus on the major structural differences between science and engineering. When embarking on a com­parison of science and engineering from a general perspective, the initial problem one faces is: what to compare? It may be argued that, at a general level, scholars of modern technology of whatever philosophical bent they may be seem to agree that technology can be distinguished from science in three closely related areas: 1. Centre and purpose of activity, 2. Normative foundation, 3. Epistemo­logical breadth and complexity. As engineering design is embedded in a larger context – a “social world” – both at a micro, meso and macro level, the design process can be conceived as a social process as well. A complete design is not in the hands of a single individual. To proceed, engineers have to take into consideration legal restrictions and standards, performance requirements set by customers, they have to negotiate with others in the company etc. Different worlds intersect generating work, which is fundamentally social and process. No overriding instrumental strategy is at hand to reconcile and synthesize the diverse design interests. At the beginning of the design process the performance requirements set by the customer is the basis of the layout of performance specifications, but even these requirements are subject to change. It is impossible to uphold these specifications within an ongoing process of modification, clarification, negotiation and joint interpretation. In this way specifications, which seem clear at the outset are challenged by the very design process. The design process is thus a process of discovery to uncover ambiguities, confusions and contradictions. The aim of this section is to scrutinize engineering design methodology, knowledge components and the role of context in the engineering design process ranging from small scale design of technical devices to large scale socio-technical system design.

Section 5: Ethics and Values in Engineering

Project Start:  Beginning of May 2012

Duration: 2 years, ending 1 December 2014

Kick-off workshop at MIT 4 and 5 May 2012: a 2 days kick-off workshop will be held Friday 4 and Saturday 5 May 2012 in the Conference room at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge in the United States. This has been arranged by Larry Bucciarelli. STS at MIT has offered to host a reception for our gathering on Friday evening. Wine, beer, cheese and crackers will be supplied by the program. 10 faculty members from within MIT will be invited to attend this event. The purpose of the workshop is:

  1. to get to know each other
  2. to give a presentation of the project by the editors
  3. to present publishing editor at Springer Ties Nijssen and project facilities Springer can offer
  4. to create a team spirit
  5. to fine tune the structure of the volume
  6. to discuss in groups interpretations of section titles regarding scope and content of sections
  7. to create an overview of possible chapter titles and their distributions across the seven sections
  8. to agree on deadlines
  9. to listen to a limited number of presentations

Workshop expenditures, travel, meals and accommodation: As there would be no project funding all cost are to be funded by participants via their institutions

Project communication, template and standards (including the system of referencing) for the chapters:

  1. Web site
  2. List of e-mail addresses
  3. Template to be used in the writing of chapters.

Deadlines and milestones:

  1. Delivery of titles, abstracts and names of authors and possible co-authors for and of chapters
  2. Writing of the Preface of the volume by the editors immediately after the kick off workshop
  3. Delivery of individual author biographies for the author biography of the volume at the beginning of the project
  4. Appointment of authors and co-authors of section introductions
  5. Delivery of proofread first drafts of chapters
  6. Review of chapters
  7. Delivery of revised chapters according to the recommendations given in the reviews
  8. Proofreading and copy-editing of chapters by native English speaking participants
  9. Indexing of chapters by the authors
  10. Delivery of final versions of chapters in each section to the authors of section introductions
  11. Writing the General Introduction by the editors and the respective section introductions
  12. Submission to Springer

Target groups:

  1. Scholars of engineering studies and STS
  2. Engineering educators at all levels
  3. Instructors, researchers and practitioners in engineering
  4. Policy makers, accreditation agencies, professional engineering societies
  5. Engineering students

List of participants:

Byron Newberry, Baylor University, Texas (Byron­

Wayne Ambler, University of Colorado, Boulder (

Jen Schneider, Colorado School of Mines (

Juan Lucena, Colorado School of Mines (

Carl Mitcham, Colorado School of Mines (

Louis L. Bucciarelli, MIT (llbjr@MIT.EDU)

Bruce Seely, Michigan Technological University, United States (

Joe Pitt, Virginia Tech (

Matt Wisnioski, Virginia tech (

Gary Downey, Virginia Tech (

Michael Dyrenfurth, Purdue University (

Brent Jesiek, Purdue University (

Erik Fisher, Arizona State University (

Joe Herkert, Arizona State University (

Javier Cañavate, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain (

José Manuel Lis, Technical University of Catalonia, Spain (

Martin Meganck, KaHo, Sint-Lieven, Belgium (

Bernard Delahousse, IUT “A” Lille, France (

Steen Hyldgaard Christensen, Aarhus University, Denmark (

Michael Evan Goodsite, Aarhus University, Denmark (

Matthias Heymann, Aarhus University, Denmark (

Anders Buch, Technical University of Denmark (

Andrew Jamison, Aalborg University, Denmark (

Stig Andur Pedersen, Roskilde University Center (RUC), Denmark (

Fernand Doridot, ICAM Lille, France (doridot (

Sylvain Lavelle, ICAM Lille, France (

Christelle Didier, The Catholic University of Lille, France (

Peter Kroes, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands (

Pieter Vermaas, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands (

Wilhelm Bomke, Fachhochschule Regensburg, Germany (

Mike Murphy, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland (

William (Bill) Grimson, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland (

Li Bocong, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (

Additional authors:

If needed additional authors may be invited after the workshop in May 2012 at MIT.

Book: Telecommunications Industry in India

Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunication Industry in India. State, Business and Labour in a Globa Economy, New Delhi: Social Sciences Press, 2010.

“Telecommunications Industry in India represents the first comprehensive study of a state-run enterprise in the telecommunications industry. The study traces over a period of half a century (1948-2009) the growth and decline of Indian Telephone Industries (ITI). At the heart of the monograph stands one central interrogation: How does the socio-technical system of production in a state-controlled firm shape the relations linking the four main actors: the state, management, union and workers?

The original contribution of this book lies in combining business history and labour history within a single conceptual framework. The author evaluates the broader conclusions about the telecommunications industry and public sector through the lens of an individual firm to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of the dynamics of change in the globalizing Indian economy.

The work is well in command of the literature on the global business history counterparts of ITI in the telecommunications industry. It is further strengthened by the use of French material on the subject which is now accessible for the first time in English.”

Dilip Subramanian is Associate Professor at the Reims Management School and is affiliated to the École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris.



Chapter 1. The Construction of a Monopoly
Chapter 2. The History and Politics of Technological Change
Chapter 3. The Burden of Monopoly and State Regulation
Chapter 4. The Advent of Competition: Fallout of Global Telecommunications Deregulation
Chapter 5. Market Forces in Full Play: Management Gains or Losses for Labour?
Chapter 6. Spheres of Practice: An Ethnography of Printed Circuit Board Assembly Work
Chapter 7. Workers and Independent Unionism
Chapter 8. Rank-and-File Challenge to Union and Management Authority
Chapter 9. Passions of Language and Caste




Book Reviews:

David Picherit, « Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy », South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal [Online], Book Reviews , Online since 11 octobre 2011, Connection on 16 décembre 2011. URL :

Djallal Heuzé, « Inde : l’agonie des télécoms », La Vie des idées, 13 juillet 2011. ISSN : 2105-3030. URL :


Review: Engineering Labour

Peter Meiksins and Chris Smith (eds), Engineering labour. Technical workers in comparative perspective. London, New-York: Verso, 1996.

Review by Charles Gadéa

This collective book is based on six case studies of engineers in Britain, Germany, France, USA, Sweden and Japan. It shows the importance of national differences in the training and the organization of engineering labour. In the two last chapters, Peter Meiksins and Chris Smith address the common issues that emerge from the case studies. They consider that the engineers play an ambiguous role within the enterprise as intermediate workers, engaging in complex and contradictory relationships with both employers and manual workers. These tensions, combined with local specificities, explain national configurations. Yet, at the same time, the authors stress that “there is not an infinite variety of ways of producing engineers. ”

“We know that there are underlying structural realities, but their effects are mediated in complex ways. We know institutional formation varies, but not infinitely. We know that the agencies involved in formation – the state, capital, labour, occupational associations- are common to all the societies, yet organized differently.” (p. 236)

Thus, the main question is how can we synthesize these variations into a limited number of models. According to Meiksins and Smith there are four main models which describe the ways of producing engineering workforce and define the social position of engineers. The first model is the craft model, in which engineers and technical workers are skilled workers at the top of the hierarchy of industrial workers: “the ‘engineer’ is constituted not by the possession of credentials, but by the laborious acquisition of practical experience” (p. 238). The second one, the managerial model, defines engineers as part of the managerial people and quite often they are trained in formal educational institutions that teach universal skills that can be easily transferred and adapted to different situations. In the third case, the “estate organization” is characterized by a stratified hierarchy of technical occupations, with formal school trained and rather elitist professionals on the one hand, but also a variety of other technical workers with claims to be recognized as engineers, on the other hand. The fourth and last model, the “company centred” model, is degree-based; the engineers are trained at the university, but the new staff are recruited by and promoted into the company; people are encouraged to show a sense of solidarity with the firm viewed as a whole rather than develop strong occupational identities and professional associations.

Book: Education in India

Joachim Oesterheld and Krishna Kumar, Education and Social Change in South Asia, Hyderabad, Orient Blackswan, 2006.

“Today education is a key factor for further development of most of the countries in South Asia, which after decades of independence are still lacking in literacy. The book focuses on the relationship between the state and society of South Asian countries, especially in the field of primary education. After dealing with developments under colonial rule, the major part of the contributions is devoted to the educational policy in South Asian countries post-independence. The papers reveal the relevance and crucial role of culture, religion, and ethnicity for imparting basic education on a nation-wide scale. Taking into consideration the complexity of societies of South Asian countries, the book looks at the social and political implications arising out of the educational policy of the state for the process of nation building. The book is a specific contribution from a South Asian context to the ongoing debate about the relevance of language, culture, and religion in the educational policy of a majority population and its impact on minority communities.”

Book: The Engineers and the Great Depression

André Grelon (ed.), Les Ingénieurs de la Crise. Titre et Profession entre les deux guerres., Paris, Editions de  l’EHESS, 1984

« L’entre-deux-guerres a été pour les ingénieurs une période d’une très grande importance. A cette époque, leurs conditions de travail se modifient, leurs rôles dans les entreprises se transforment, leur position dans la société est en pleine évolution. La grande crise des années trente agit à cet effet comme un révélateur : les ingénieurs prennent conscience qu’ils sont menacés à la fois de l’intérieur parce qu’ils forment un groupe de plus en plus hétérogène et de l’extérieur par les risques de déqualification professionnelle et de déclassement social. Ils sont donc amenés à se défendre en cherchant à obtenir un statut qui définisse une qualité intrinsèque de l’ingénieur : ce sera la bataille pour la protection du titre d’ingénieur. Cet épisode revêt une grande signification dans leur longue histoire, car c’est sur la base des acquis des années trente que s’est construit l’ingénieur contemporain. Ce livre relate pour la première fois la lutte de ce groupe socio-professionnel pour préserver et renforcer son identité : il analyse les raisons de ce mouvement et en décrit les modalités. Il montre aussi que les problèmes auxquels ont été confrontés les ingénieurs français étaient communs à ceux de toute l’Europe : il jette ainsi les basés d’une histoire européenne des ingénieurs. »


Book: Engineering Education

André Grelon, A.Karvar, I.GouzevitchLa formation des ingénieurs en perspective. Modèles de référence et réseaux de médiation, XVIIIe-XX siècles, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, 2004

« L’institutionnalisation de la formation et de la pratique des ingénieurs est un processus historique de grande ampleur qui se développe parallèlement aux grandes vagues d’industrialisation en Europe et en Amérique du Nord, dès la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Elle ne cesse de s’étendre à tous les pays; elle est encore à l’œuvre aujourd’hui. Elle est souvent en corrélation avec la diffusion des « modèles » d’enseignement technique. Réunissant des contributions de chercheurs et d’universitaires venus du monde entier, le présent ouvrage offre un aperçu original des recherches comparatives sur le transfert des « modèles » d’enseignement pour ingénieurs entre différentes aires culturelles. Les articles rassemblés en trois parties – institutionnalisation de l’enseignement, médiation des acteurs et polysémie du concept de  » modèle  » – traitent des déterminants techniques et culturels, des stratégies d’expansion et des choix politiques comme des mécanismes complexes d’acculturation dans un environnement local. »

Book: Professionalization

Valérie Boussard, Didier Demazière, Philip Milbrun (dir.), L’injonction au professionnalisme. Analyses d’une dynamique plurielle, Préface de Claude Dubar, Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2010

Cet ouvrage interroge l’autonomie de professionnels lorsque des changements, vécus comme autant d’injonctions au professionnalisme, entrent en collision avec leurs conceptions de leur activité. Il s’agit de rendre compte des dynamiques professionnelles mises en place sur divers registres tels que le statut, la carrière, le cadre juridique, la nature technique de l’activité, la relation avec le public ou la coordination et l’exercice de l’autorité dans le travail. La diversité des métiers étudiés offre une vision très concrète des phénomènes à l’œuvre.

  • Salariés intermédiaires dans de grandes organisations
  • Professions supérieures et modèle de l’autonomie professionnelle
  • Activités structurées par de forts référentiels professionnels

Book: Women Engineers

Catherine Marry, Les femmes ingénieures. Une révolution silencieuse, Paris, Éditions Belin, 2004

« Depuis les années 1920, les femmes affirment leur présence dans le monde masculin des ingénieurs. Ce livre retrace les moments et les lieux, les avancées et les butoirs, les ressorts subjectifs et sociaux de cette transgression des places et destins féminins. Il s’agit d’une révolution respectueuse, mais c’est le premier de ces deux termes paradoxaux qui est le plus exploré ici. Comme ailleurs, l’hégémonie masculine perdure dans les hautes sphères, mais la présence de mieux en mieux acceptée des femmes ingénieurs s’inscrit dans une dynamique d’égalité entre les sexes. »

Catherine Marry est sociologue, directrice de recherche au CNRS (Lasmas, Paris). Elle participe à la direction du Groupement de recherche européen MAGE (Marché du travail et genre). Parmi ses publications récentes : Laufer Jacqueline, Marry Catherine, Maruani Margaret (dir.), Le travail du genre, Paris, La Découverte, 2003 ; Laufer Jacqueline, Marry Catherine, Maruani Margaret (dir.), Masculin-féminin, Questions pour les sciences de l’homme, Paris, Puf, 2001.

Book: Sociology of Professions

Florent Champy, La sociologie des professions, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 2009

« Des menaces venues du management et des marchés pèsent sur l’autonomie dans le travail de professions revendiquant un haut niveau de compétence (médecins, juristes, etc.). Or, la sociologie des professions est fortement interpellée par ces évolutions. Jusqu’aux années 1960, elle s’était particulièrement intéressée à ces activités, reprenant souvent sans distance le discours des professionnels sur leurs pratiques. Mais une sociologie plus critique a ensuite mis l’accent sur les similitudes avec des métiers moins prestigieux (plombier, infirmière). Ayant accordé peu d’attention aux spécificités de certains types de métiers, cette deuxième approche, aujourd’hui dominante, est peu armée pour penser les enjeux des évolutions actuelles.
Un premier objectif de cet ouvrage consiste à présenter systématiquement les auteurs, les théories, les démarches et les thèmes (carrières, travail, genre, statuts, etc.) constitutifs de ces deux approches successives des professions. Puis l’auteur met en évidence l’émergence d’un troisième regard, qui vise à résoudre les difficultés rencontrées par l’approche critique. S’aidant des réflexions d’Aristote sur les formes d’action dans des situations de forte incertitude, il montre à partir de plusieurs exemples comment les pressions productivistes et les tendances à la standardisation et à la bureaucratisation du travail professionnel menacent la place des « pratiques prudentielles » dans nos sociétés. »