Book: ICTs and Economic Development

Ashwani Saith and M. Vijayabaskar (eds), ICT and Indian Economic Development. Economy, Work, Regulation, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2005

“This book evaluates the recent phenomenon of Information technology communication (ICT) development in India, and discusses such questions as: Can the growth be sustained? How far can an ICT revolution go towards modernising India’s economy? What could be the capacity of ICTs to induce rapid social transformation and change? Can India navigate all the pitfalls and hazards and retain its current comparative advantage in the field of ICT?

– Provide a systematic overview of the major developments and trends in the Indian ICT sector;

– Investigates the dynamism of the IT sector and whether it has contributed to wealth creation in any significant measure; and whether Bangalore, in its area of special strength-software-is a dynamic leader or merely a Silicon Valley follower;

– Assess the role of the State and of government policy, especially with regard to the opportunities for shaping the future of this sector;

– Explore the processes of the restructuring of work and employment in the wake of the IT revolution;

– Set the Indian experience in a wider context through a discussion of the Chinese experience, along with a comparative analysis of ICT clusters in the two countries.”

Book: ICTs and Social Change

Ashwani Saith, M. Vijayabaskar, V. Gayathri, ICTs and Indian Social Change. Diffusion, Poverty, Governance, New Delhi, Sage Publications, 2008

“This book is the first of its kind in putting together the optimistic voices of techno-idealists, critical social science perspectives on technology and a range of empirical material on the impacts of ICTs on the lives of people via its diffusion in the urban and rural spaces of work, consumption, e-governance and the new kinds of social identities it has fostered in India.

This volume views the diffusion of ICTs in India primarily from the socio-cultural realm. It provides an empirical and theoretical critique of some of the important premises that undergird these initiatives and brings together the voices of innovators in the ICT for development domain. It opens up an entire arena for dialogue between activists, technocrats, bureaucrats and academia on using ICTs to deliver development.”

Report: R & D in ICT India

Payal Malik and P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan, Trends in Public and Private Investments in ICT R&D in India,  European Commission, Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2011

Executive Summary

“The Indian Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry is contributing to the national economy in many ways and almost all states in India are targeting the sector as a vehicle for economic development. NASSCOM’s 2009 strategic report estimates that the Indian IT-BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) industry achieved revenues of USD 71.7 billion in FY2009, of which the IT software and services industry accounted for USD 60 billion. Direct employment at the end of March 2009 was expected to reach nearly 2.23 million, while indirect job creation was estimated to touch 8 million. The sector’s revenues grew from 1.2% of national GDP in FY1998 to an estimated 5.8% in FY2009. The net value added by this sector to the economy was estimated at 3.5-4.1% for FY2009.

The Indian ICT sector has evolved in three phases: up to 1984, 1984–1990 and post-1990. In the first phase, apart from trying to establish its own technological trajectories, the state attempted to run the industry which resulted in no commercial sector. In this phase, there was no great differentiation between software and hardware. In the second phase, the government realized that software was a viable option for income generation and technological capability enhancement. In the third phase, the software export industry blossomed, aggressively promoted by both national and sub-national governments. Consequently, the export-driven growth model ignored the hardware sector and domestic sector, despite their huge potential. Though the ICT sector is growing in all domains, it is predominantly driven by software services and telecom services.

Until the 1990s, the Indian economy was under state control and there was little incentive for private industry to invest in R&D. The Indian ICT sector is dominated by the larger players with the top 200 firms contributing about 86% of the total revenues in 2008. Multinational firms dominate in the innovation space through their Indian R&D centres. Although larger Indian firms perform R&D activities, they are sub-contractors and do not have ownership of their activities. An analysis of secondary data showed that most of the multinational firms follow the conventional outsourcing model: they enter India as a cost centre which then evolves into a technology centre.

At present, the ICT sector is clustered in six cities: Bangalore, Pune, Chennai, Hyderabad, the National Capital Region (Noida, Delhi and Gurgaon) and Mumbai. However, efforts are being made by the central and state governments to spread the sector to second-tier cities. A comparison of the major ICT clusters shows that the Bangalore cluster presents a more mature eco-system for the ICT industry compared to the other clusters. Due to its historical lead advantages, it has a deep labour market, proximity to well-known research institutes, government research labs, the presence of venture capital, and a healthy mix of large domestic firms, multinationals and other supplementary firms.

Hardware manufacturing is weak with some innovation happening in semiconductor design and manufacturing. Poor manufacturing capabilities and lack of adequate support infrastructure will continue to put the Indian ICT industry at a disadvantage to competitive producers like China, Taiwan and Korea.

University-industry alliances are much to be desired, but they are limited to campus placement and student internships. The labour pool with engineering or ICT-related education is impressive in terms of numbers, but a closer look reveals a poor research component.

Though Indian firms are expanding their global reach and technology domains in service through acquisitions, it is difficult to conclude that R&D capabilities have been acquired. Indian firms continue to cater to western clients through software product development or engineering services, and they innovate for in-house consumption rather than developing off the-shelf products for the open market.

Since the Indian ICT sector concentrates on services, innovation is predominantly on processes. This service innovation can be observed in other areas:

• Transition from on-site to off-shore, by sending people for project execution at the client’s site to executing and managing projects in India;

• Productised services, in which Indian firms standardise the services provided to clients and sell them as productised services, a level below off-the-shelf products;

• Virtual extension, in which Indian firms serve as sub-contractors but interact with primary clients directly;

• Human capital capacity building, because though human capital is available, skill gaps are met by the sector itself.

• Finally, service process innovation is crucial in explaining the success of the Indian telecom sector. Tailored tariff packages in line with the affordability profiles of Indians and also outsourced network expansion were the first of their kind and have yet to become a global trend.”

Review: Salaam America

Aminah-Mohammad-Arif, Salaam America: South Asian Muslims in New York. London: Anthem Press, 2002. 355 pages.

Review by Pierre Gottschlich

In: Internationales Asienforum. 35 (2004), 3-4, pp. 373-375.

The South Asian Diaspora and especially the Indian-American community in the United States of America have received more academic attention during the last decade. The remarkably good education of this group, its quick economic success, and its perceived interior unity have made it not only a “model minority” as far as its adaptation into the socioeconomic environment of the U.S. is concerned, but also a more and more active and visible player in cultural and political affairs of the host country. Consequently, the last years have seen a couple of in-depth studies of certain parts of the community. Most if not all of these works, however, have focused on Hindu and, in part, Sikh immigrants to the United States. The large number of Indian Muslims that have come to America has widely been ignored. Aminah Mohammad-Arif’s study attempts to fill this gap of in-depth knowledge and is, therefore, from its mere intention alone of great value.

Although the author has conducted interviews with members of the Indian Muslim community all over the U.S., the main focus of her work is the New York metropolitan area. This region has been the setting of different other studies of the Indian-American community such as, for example, the books by Johanna Lessinger (1995) and Madhulika S. Khandelwal (2002) and provides, hence, a well-tested ground for academic research. In contrast to other works Mohammad-Arif concentrates on a special group within the community, a minority’s minority, and, thereby, obviously breaks with the myth of a uniform Indian-American origin, culture, or identity.

The book is divided into four parts. The first main section, “From the Indian Subcontinent to America”, starts with a chapter on the historical development of Islam in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Here, Mohammad-Arif describes the different Muslim traditions of Sunni, Shi’a, and Ahmadiyya in South Asia, thereby laying the foundation necessary for an understanding of intra-community dynamics in the United States. Since the South Asian Muslims in the U.S. represent a “microcosm of the Muslim population of the subcontinent” (p. 19), a short introduction to their original internal divisions is not only helpful, but essential. The second chapter focuses on the economic and demographic profile of the South Asian immigrant community in the United States. Besides a brief historical description, this section offers insights into issues like “Marriage and divorce” (p. 39ff) or “Ethnic business” (p. 42ff). Unfortunately, the statistics presented do rely heavily on the 1990 U.S. Census of Population, which renders several numbers obsolete. Nevertheless, this chapter proves to be very informative, especially because of the personal views presented in numerous interviews.

The second main part of Mohammad-Arif’s work deals with the process of adaptation to the new environment. The first chapter of this section concentrates on the role and importance of religion and religious practices for the South Asian Muslim community. Here, Mohammad-Arif successfully links theoretical aspects of religiosity to the specific framework of Islam and to the day-to-day performance of religious duties by the members of the community. She also includes many controversial issues such as the Muslim diet (p. 63ff) or the oftentimes questioned obligation of Muslim women to wear the veil (p. 66ff). These critical points of South Asian Muslim religiosity are described in context of their relation not only to the host society but also to Islam in general, since many features of Islam on the Indian subcontinent show remarkable differences to their Arab or African counterparts. In the following chapter, Mohammad-Arif explores the problems and challenges for the second generation members of the community. Their “’masala’ identity” (p. 84) between the religious, cultural, and social traditions of their parents and the everyday struggle for acceptance in school and work life is of prime importance to the community as a whole and certainly deserves the attention the author has devoted to it.

The third part of the book, “Redefining Islam”, investigates Islamic institutions and movements in the United States and their relations and adaptations to the host society. On the institutional side, Mohammad-Arif works with many well-researched and very informative, although possibly not necessarily representative, case studies of different mosques, Islamic centers, and Islamic schools. As for Islamic movements, she thoroughly describes two of the most important groups, namely the “Muslim Student Association (MSA)” and the “Islamic Circle of North America (INCA)”. These and other transnational operating movements and associations, as Mohammad-Arif clearly shows, do reflect the high degree of organization a well-educated immigrant group like the South Asian population can achieve (p. 189ff). The concluding part exclusively deals with the relationships of the South Asian Muslim community with others. In the first chapter of this section, the author returns to the idea of an immigrant community being a microcosm, but applies this concept to the whole Muslim world. According to Mohammad-Arif, the United States might see the “emergence of a ‘utopian umma’” (p. 193) reflecting an aspired unified Islam despite the internal diversity of the Muslim population in the U.S. Recent trends suggest the possible forming of a “pan-Islamic melting pot” (p. 206), a development that is fostered by the growing use of modern communication technology. The following chapter explores the oftentimes difficult relations between South Asian Muslims and Hindus in the light of events like the Ayodhya crisis (p. 214ff) and assesses the possibilities of a common South Asian identity. In the last chapter of this section, Mohammad-Arif turns to questions of integration into the host society, dealing with matters of mutual perception as well as with stereotypes and mechanism of discrimination. Hereby, she also touches on lobbying efforts by the community in order to raise awareness and acceptance, a point that seems to be becoming more and more important and may encourage further research. The book closes with a summarizing conclusion that reconstructs the main lines of argumentation in a straight manner.

Since the original, French version of this book was published in 2000, the consequences of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, have not been included in the main body of the work. Because of the prime importance of the challenges posed by this tragic event to the South Asian Muslim community, the author has added an afterword, written in February 2002. Here, Mohammad-Arif reflects on the immediate impact the terrorist strikes had on the community and discusses some of the first implications. The book also contains a glossary of the most important terms and an extensive bibliography. The statistical appendix is, at least in part, outdated, which is largely due to the fact that the South Asian Diaspora in the United States is one of the fastest growing and dynamically changing ethnic groups in the U.S.

Overall, Salaam America provides a valuable and readable source of information on a subject that has not received much attention yet. Aminah Mohammad-Arif has very successfully combined a thorough analysis of the South Asian Muslim population with indepth interviews of individual members of this community that convincingly support the author’s arguments. The relatively narrow regional scope proves to be advantageous to the focus of the assessment. Nevertheless, future research may also include more information on the large Indian-American Muslim communities in California, Texas, and Illinois.

Book: Hindu Nationalism

Michael Schied, Nationalismus und Fundamantalismusm in Indien. Der Ayodhya-Konflikt, Saarbrücken, VDM Verlag Dr Muller, 2008

“The book analyses the events leading up to the storming of the Babri Mosque at Ayodhya by activists of the Hindu fundamentalist movement on 30th October 1990. In this context, all parties and organisations involved in the conflict, their histories, strategies and tactics are examined: Vishva Hindu Parishad, Bharatiya Jana Sangh/Bharatiya Janata Party, Rashtriya Svayamsevak Sangh, Muslim organisations, Indian National Congress, Janata Dal. The thesis demonstrates the changes within Hinduism revealed by the Ayodhya campaign and, in doing so, describes its religious symbolism. Legal aspects of the Babri Mosque issue in independent India are also analysed and possible scenarios of conflict resolution explored. The thesis illustrates the importance of the issue in the context of the country’s overall development and its central political trends since 1947.”

Book: Education in India

Joachim Oesterheld and Krishna Kumar, Education and Social Change in South Asia, Hyderabad, Orient Blackswan, 2006.

“Today education is a key factor for further development of most of the countries in South Asia, which after decades of independence are still lacking in literacy. The book focuses on the relationship between the state and society of South Asian countries, especially in the field of primary education. After dealing with developments under colonial rule, the major part of the contributions is devoted to the educational policy in South Asian countries post-independence. The papers reveal the relevance and crucial role of culture, religion, and ethnicity for imparting basic education on a nation-wide scale. Taking into consideration the complexity of societies of South Asian countries, the book looks at the social and political implications arising out of the educational policy of the state for the process of nation building. The book is a specific contribution from a South Asian context to the ongoing debate about the relevance of language, culture, and religion in the educational policy of a majority population and its impact on minority communities.”

Book: Water Resources Management

Peter Mollinga, Anjali Bhat and S.V. Saravanan (eds), When policy meets reality : Political dynamics and the practice of integration in water resources management reform. Berlin : LIT Verlag, 2010

«Water policy initiatives often run into difficulties when they encounter the realities of really existing societies. Policies may not get implemented as planned, and may not achieve their stated objectives. Many things happen when policy initiatives travel from formulation to implementation. The papers in this volume examine the travel and appropriation of water policy by looking at the contestation and the embeddedness of water policy. Organised in the sequence everyday politics of water, politics of water policy, hydropolitics, global water politics, the papers constitute a call for a policy approach that replaces a social engineering with a strategic action perspective.»

Book: History of engineering contracting

Arjan van Rooij and Ernst Homburg, Building the plant: A history of engineering contracting in the Netherlands. Eindhoven/ Zutphen: Stichting Historie der Techniek/ Walburg Pers, 2002

« This book is on the history of companies involved in the design and construction of (petro)chemical plants, oil refineries, power plants, and of all sorts of installations for the process industries and the oil and gas off-shore industries. These companies are called engineering contractors. Names such as Foster-Wheeler, Linde, Lummus, Fluor Daniel, Uhde, Stone & Webster, Comprimo, Bechtel, Technip, Simon Carves, and Badger, to name just a few, are well-known to anyone working in the process industries. Together these companies, and their sub-contractors, employ hundreds of thousands of employees, and their turnover amounts to several billions of dollars. Nevertheless, most of the companies named are completely unknown to the public at large. The sector has definitely a ‘low profile’, and this is underlined by the fact that also among business historians and historians of technology hardly anyone has a clear understanding of the crucial role these engineering contractors play in the development and diffusion of technology. The present book, which focuses especially on the engineering contractors based in the Netherlands, is probably the first historical study devoted to this important branch of industry. There exists a limited number of books on the history of individual companies, but the history of the branch as a whole has not been studied before. »

Book: Sociology of Professional Groups

Didier Demazière & Charles Gadéa, Sociologie des groupes professionnels, Acquis récents et nouveaux défis, Paris, La Découverte, 2009

« Tantôt accusées d’accumuler les privilèges et de freiner la croissance, tantôt citées en modèle de travail de qualité et de métier prestigieux, les professions attirent une attention constante, aussi bien de la part des médias que des chercheurs. La recherche sociologique sur les groupes professionnels a connu un fort développement récent en France. Cet ouvrage en propose un large panorama, dégage des angles d’approche originaux et trace de nouvelles pistes d’analyse. Professions traditionnelles en déclin numérique et nouveaux métiers, activités « nobles » et métiers illicites, fonctions exercées en régime libéral, salarial, voire bénévole, le tableau dressé est vaste et varié. Il va des prêtres catholiques aux prostituées, en passant par les musiciens, les biologistes, les dompteurs de fauves, les ingénieurs, les conseillers bancaires, les infirmières, les notaires, les psychologues, les enseignants, etc.
Les auteurs déplacent ensuite la perspective pour traiter différentes questions : cadrage et contrôle du travail des professionnels dans les organisations ; régulation des professions et normalisation de leurs activités ; socialisation spécifique aux mondes professionnels ; relations entre les professionnels et leurs clients ou usagers ; modalités d’émergence de nouvelles professions et de disparition de certaines autres ; déroulements de carrière, fonctionnement des marchés du travail et inégalités entre hommes et femmes. »


Book: Les cadres

Paul Bouffartigue, Charles Gadéa, Sociologie des cadres, Paris, Editions La Découverte, 2000

« Depuis les années quatre-vingt-dix, il est question de ” banalisation “, de ” précarisation ” et de ” crise de confiance ” des cadres. La société française est-elle en train de se défaire de cette catégorie sociale originale, construite avec succès des années trente aux années soixante-dix ? Assiste-t-on à la fin du compromis social qui unissaient les cadres aux directions d’entreprise ? Ce livre relance le regard sociologique sur ce groupe social, après une quinzaine d’années de désintérêt, en le focalisant sur les cadres d’entreprise. Il fait le point sur les grandes évolutions de l’emploi des cadres, de leurs caractéristiques sociales et de leurs modes de vie. Il interroge le devenir des voies d’accès au statut cadre en cours de vie active. Il traite des grandes dimensions d’une déstabilisation – du chômage aux comportements syndicaux en passant par le travail et les carrières – dont les implications demeurent incertaines : allons-nous vers l’éclatement, voire la disparition des cadres comme catégorie distincte au sein du salariat ? »


Book: The Social Construction of Technology

Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas P. Hughes, Trevor Pinch (eds). The Social Construction of Technological Systems. New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts), London (England). 1999.

“The impact of technology on society is clear and unmistakable. The influence of society on technology is more subtle. The 13 essays in this book draw on a wide array of case studies from cooking stoves to missile systems, from 15th­century Portugal to today’s AI labs – to outline an original research program based on a synthesis of ideas from the social studies of science and the history of technology. Together they affirm the need for a study of technology that gives equal weight to technical, social, economic, and political questions.”

Table of Contents


1. Trevor Pinch and Wiebe E. Bijker.The Social Construction of Facts and Artifacts. Or How the Sociology of Science and the Sociology of Technology Might Benefit Each Other

2. Thomas P. Hughes. The Evolution of Large Technological Systems

3. Michel Callon. Society in the Making The Study of Technology as a Tool for Sociological Analysis

4. John Law. Technology and Heterogeneous Engineering The Case of Portuguese Expansion

5. Henk van den Belt and Arie Rip. The Nelson-Winter-Dosi Model and Synthetic Dye Chemistry

6. Wiebe E. Bijker. The Social Construction of Bakelite Toward a Theory of Invention

7. Donald MacKenzie. Missile AccuracyA Case of Study in the Social Processes of Technological Change

8. Edward W. Constant. The Social Locus of Technological Practice Community, System, or Organization, III

9. Henk J.H.W. Bodewitz, Henk Buurma and Gerard H. de Vries. Regulatory Science and the Social Management of Trust in Medicine

10. Ruth Schwartz Cowan. The Consumption Junction. A Proposal for Research Strategies in the Sociology of Technology

11. Edward Yoxen. Seeing with SoundA Study of the Development of Medical Images

12. Steve Woolgar. Reconstructing Man and MachineA Note on Sociological Critiques of Cognitivism.

13. Harry M. Collins. Expert Systems and the Science of Knowledge

About the Editors

Wiebe E. Bijker is Professor of Technology & Society at the University of Maastricht.

Thomas P. Hughes is Professor of the History and Sociology of Science at the University of Pennsylvania.

Trevor Pinch is Professor of Science and Technology Studies and Professor of Sociology at Cornell University. He is the coeditor of How Users Matter: The Co-Construction of Users and Technology (MIT Press, 2003) and the coauthor of Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer and other books.




Books: Engineering Ethics

Christelle Didier, Les ingénieurs et l’éthique : pour un regard sociologique, London, Hermes, 2008

« L’éthique est devenue un grand sujet de préoccupation dans de nombreux secteurs tels que la médecine, l’économie, le journalisme, le travail social mais aussi celui des sciences et des techniques. Les ingénieurs et l’éthique s’interroge sur les valeurs et l’identité d’une profession en prise avec d’importantes questions actuelles comme la pollution, les risques techniques et les inégalités sociales. Présentant les résultats d’une enquête sociologique réalisée sur près de 4 000 diplômés français, ce livre permet de mieux cerner le regard que portent les ingénieurs sur les sciences, les techniques et la société. Cet ouvrage offre une meilleure connaissance de l’univers des représentations d’un groupe social en pleine mutation. »


Christelle Didier, Penser l’éthique des ingénieurs, Paris, PUF, “Questions d’éthique”, 2008

« Cet ouvrage propose des pistes pour interroger les enjeux éthiques de la technique à partir de l’un de ses principaux acteurs, l’ingénieur. Aux professionnels, il propose une réflexion sur leurs responsabilités individuelles et collectives. A ceux qui les forment, il indique des éléments pour aborder ces questions en cours. Aux spécialistes en sciences humaines et sociales, il dévoile un pan méconnu des recherches protant sur les professions techniques. Il offre à tous la possibilité de mieux connaître certains aspects de notre monde technique à travers celles et ceux qui y contribuent. »


About the Author

Christelle Didier is Associate Professor in the Ethics Department of the Lille Catholic University and Head of Engineering Ethics. She co-authored Éthique industrielle (Bruxelles, 1998) and contributes to the European Journal of Engineering Education



Book: Water in South Asia

Peter Mollinga (ed), Water for Food and Rural Development. Approaches and Initiatives in South Asia, New Delhi, Sage, 2000

“This important book addresses two fundamental questions: First, what is the relation, in South Asia, between the development and use of water resources on the one hand, and food security and rural development on the other? Second, which innovative approaches and methodologies can help resolve the deadlock in water resources development and management?

This volume of 17 original essays presents views and experiences on these important questions from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The authors argue strongly for an integrated approach to water resource management which would make it part of the broader agenda of rural transformation. They cite concrete examples to show how a shift away from an exclusive focus on infrastructure development and increased production is possible in practice. All water-related interventions, they recommend, should be made conditional on the inclusion of strategies for sustainable biomass production; resource-rights and asset creation through generating employment (especially for the landless, the land-poor and women); equity in resource access and distribution; and principles of democratic planning and management.”

Contributors: Peter P. Mollinga, C.W.J. Roest, Tushaar Shah, Mahesh Banskota, Suresh R. Chalise, Syed Z. Sadeque, Jayanta Bandyopadhyay, Anjan Datta, M. Youssouf Ali, Upendra Gautam, Rajan Subedi, Kusum Athukorala, Zaigham Habib, Ajaya Dixit, Abid Shah, E.M. Shashidharan, Reema Nanavaty, K.R. Datye, Suhas Paranjape, K.J. Joy, Vijay Paranjpye, Lionel Siriwardena, …


Book: The Chemical Industry in Europe

Ernst Homburg, Anthony S. Travis, Harm G. Schröter (eds), The Chemical Industry in Europe, 1850-1914: Industrial Growth, Pollution and Professionalization, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998

“This book analyses the development of the chemical industry during the Second Industrial Revolution in a large number of European countries. It is the first book-length study of the European chemical industry that pays proper attention to the importance of environmental issues, and to the role of the chemical profession both in industrial and in environmental matters. It is intended for a large audience of historians of technology and chemistry, social historians, economic and business historians, and historians of the environment.”

Contributors:  Ernst Homburg, Anthony S. Travis, Christian Simon, Hans Jorgen Styhr Petersen, Paolo Amat di San Filippo, Roman Mierzecki, Anders Lundgren, Harm G. Schröter,Sarah Wilmot, Peter Reed, Arne Andersen, James Donnelly, Stuart Bennett, Carsten Reinhardt, Wolfgang Wimmer, Gérard Emptoz, Anne-Claire Déré

Book: Indian Students in the UK before World War II

Sumita Mukherjee, Nationalism, Education and Migrant Identities. The England-returned, London, New York, Routledge, 2009

“This book examines the role western-education and social standing played in the development of Indian nationalism in the early twentieth century. It highlights the influences that education abroad had on a significant proportion of the Indian population. A large number of Indian students – including key figures such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Mohammad Ali Jinnah and Jawaharlal Nehru – took up prominent positions in government service, industry or political movements after having spent their student years in Britain before the Second World War. Having reaped the benefits of the British educational system, they spearheaded movements in India that sought to gain independence from British rule. The author analyses the long-term impact of this short-term migration on Britain, South Asia and Empire and deals with issues of migrant identities and the ways in which travel shaped ideas about the ‘Self’ and ‘Home’. Through this study of the England-Returned, attention is drawn to contemporary concerns about the politicisation of foreign students and the antecedents of the growing South Asian student population in the USA and Europe today, as well as of Britain’s growing South Asian diaspora.”


“1. Introduction: The “England-Returned” 2. Indian Students in the UK (1900-1947) 3. Images of Britain, India and the “England-Returned” 4. The Social Interactions of the England-Returned 5. The Political Identities of the England-Returned 6. The Careers and Long-Term Impact of the England-Returned 7. Conclusion: The Future for the England-Returned. Notes. Bibliography. Index »


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